Patients with chronic kidney disease are at high risk for anemia, which is associated with poor renal outcomes. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) typically have higher hemoglobin levels compared with patients with other kidney disease. There are few available data examining anemia as a potential prognosticator. Yusuke Ushio, MD, and colleagues conducted an study to examine anemia as a factor for renal prognosis in anemia. Results of the analysis were reported in Clinical and Experimental Nephrology [doi.org/10.1007/s10157-020-01856-1].
The analysis included 115 non-dialysis patients with ADPKD; of those, 48 were men and 47 were women. The renal outcome of interest was a 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate or the need for renal replacement therapy. The researchers utilized Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Median follow-up was 5.5 years; 50 patients reached the primary renal end point during follow-up. At first visit, mean age of the cohort was 45.9 years. Mean overall hemoglobin was 12.90 g/dL; in men, mean hemoglobin was 13.82 g/dL and in women,“` mean hemoglobin was 12/25 g/dL.
Hemoglobin level and uric protein content were statistically significant factors for poor real prognosis. Hypertension and genetic mutations did not reach statistical significance as predictors of poor renal outcomes. Statistical significance was found in men with hemoglobin <12 g/dL and women with hemoglobin <11 g/dL. There was significant association between anemia and progression of kidney disease in patients with ADPKD.
“We found that anemia might be a factor for poor renal prognosis in ADPKD. Furthermore, a sex difference was found, wherein men with hemoglobin <12 g/dL and women with hemoglobin <11 g/dL were at risk of renal disease progression.”