Early relapse following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is an independent predictor of survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM), according to a study from researchers at the Shanxi Medical University in Taiyuan, China.
To evaluate how early relapse after AHCT affects overall survival (OS), the investigators retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 36 patients with MM who received transplant between 2012 and 2017. Median follow-up was 31 months.
Early relapse occurred in 13 patients (35.1%), three of whom had extramedullary disease. No patients without early relapse had extramedullary disease. The rate of very-good partial response (VGPR) was 23.1% among patients who experienced early relapse and 62.5% among those who did not. Among patients with early relapse, median OS was 17 months and median progression-free survival was 7 months compared with 93 months and 38 months, respectively, for patients without early relapse.
According to univariate analysis, OS was impacted by early relapse, cytogenetic abnormalities, and a VGPR or better prior to transplant. Multivariate analysis confirmed that early relapse was an independent predictor of OS.
“The prognosis of patients with early relapse after AHCT in newly diagnosed MM is poor. Early relapse is an independent prognostic factor of survival,” wrote the authors in conclusion.