At a global level, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can detect recurrence in prostate cancer patients in the setting of biochemical recurrence (BCR), according to a study published online July 8 in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Juliano J. Cerci, M.D., Ph.D., from Quanta Diagnóstico e Terapia in Curitiba, Brazil, and colleagues conducted a prospective international study to examine the diagnostic performance and clinical impact of PSMA-PET/CT in evaluating BCR in prostate cancer. A total of 1,004 patients were recruited from 17 centers in 15 countries. Participants had histopathology-proven prostate adenocarcinoma with previous primary treatment and clinically established BCR; all underwent PET/CT scanning with 68Gallium-PSMA-11.
The researchers found that 77.7 and 22.3 percent of patients were treated initially with radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy, respectively. Overall, 65.1 percent had PSMA-PET/CT positive scans. Positivity on PSMA-PET/CT scans correlated with Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at PET time, PSA doubling time, and initial treatment with radiotherapy. In 56.8 percent of patients, treatment was modified based on PSMA-PET/CT results. The positivity rates were consistent and did not differ significantly in countries with different incomes
“Our findings resonate with the available literature on the use of PSMA-PET/CT in the evaluation of prostate cancer patients in the scenario of BCR,” the authors write. “The most relevant finding in our understanding is that there were no statistically significant differences in PSMA-PET/CT performance among continents, nor among the different income categories in which the participants were distributed.”