The growth of dental arches is mediated by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1). However, according to a study in Growth Hormone & IGF Research, the impact of GH deficiency (GHD) on dental arch growth is unknown, which the researchers, led by Rafaela S. Girão, submitted was probably due to “the acquired etiology of GHD,” as well as “imperfections of related replacement therapies, which may affect the dental arch growth.” In a cohort of patients with isolated (I)GHD, the investigators found that IGHD reduced the growth of the maxillary dental arch more than the mandibular arch. According to the authors, this result suggests “different controls of the superior and inferior dental arches.”
To avoid the described barriers to understanding GHD’s impact on arch growth, the authors organized a “unique” cohort of patients with congenital IGHD due to the same GH releasing hormone receptor gene mutation, who were living with very low serum GH and low-to-undetectable circulating IGF1 levels. The primary measure of interest was the dimensions of maxillary and mandibular dental arches.
The trial included a total of 22 adult patients with IGHD, of which 15 were untreated, and seven were previously partially treated with GH, along with 33 controls. In the patients who were previously untreated, all maxillary arch measures were smaller than controls. Comparatively, among the mandibular arches, only the mandibular canine width and the mandibular arch length were lower compared to controls. Further, in partially treated patients, the authors observed that only the palate depth, maxillary canine width, and the maxillary and mandibular arch lengths remained smaller than controls.
The authors ultimately concluded that GHD did indeed have an effect on dental arch growth, however the impact appeared to be primarily to the growth of the maxillary arch, and in their closing remarks, the authors noted that “GH treatment increases some of these measures.”
If you are concerned about having arch growth problems, we suggest visiting your dentist. If you do not have one yet, you can visit this dentist in San Francisco. Your dentist may also help you with problems like missing teeth for which he may recommend getting dental implants.