Each week on DocWire News, editors bring you the latest hematology and oncology news and research. In case you missed it, here are this week’s top headlines:
- Overall Cancer Incidence, Mortality Lower for U.S. Hispanics
- Abiraterone Acetate + Prednisone Cuts Metastasis in Prostate Cancer
- Urban-Rural Disparity Seen in New Liver Cancer Cases
- AI Model Enhances Histologic Grading of Breast Cancer
Keep reading for the breakdown on these top stories.
Overall Cancer Incidence, Mortality Lower for U.S. Hispanics
Hispanic/Latino men and women in the United States have lower overall cancer incidence and mortality than non-Hispanic Whites, but they have an increased risk for specific cancers, including infection-related cancers, according to a report.
Hispanic men and women had 25 to 30 percent lower incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined compared with non-Hispanic Whites, and they had lower rates for most common cancers, although the gap is decreasing; for example, for colorectal cancer, the incidence rate ratio for Hispanics versus non-Hispanic Whites was 0.75 in 1995 compared with 0.91 in 2018.
Abiraterone Acetate + Prednisone Cuts Metastasis in Prostate Cancer
For patients with high-risk nonmetastatic (M0) prostate cancer, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) added to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves metastasis-free survival, while standard of care (SOC) plus abiraterone improves overall survival for men with de novo metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC), according to two studies presented at the annual meeting of the European Society for Medical Oncology.
In the STAMPEDE study, prostate cancer patients with M0 node-positive or high-risk node-negative were randomized 1:1 to receive ADT versus ADT with AAP or ADT versus ADT with AAP and enzalutamide (ENZ). The researchers found that metastasis-free survival and survival improved with AAP-based therapy. Six-year metastasis-free survival improved from 69 to 82 percent, and six-year overall survival improved from 77 to 86 percent.
In the PEACE-1 study, 1,173 men with de novo mCSPC were randomly assigned to SOC, SOC + abiraterone, SOC + radiation to the primary tumor (RXT), or SOC + abiraterone + RXT. Patients were followed for a median of 4.4 years. In the overall population and in the population treated with ADT + docetaxel, overall survival was improved with abiraterone.
Urban-Rural Disparity Seen in New Liver Cancer Cases
There has been a widening rural-urban disparity in changes in new cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the past two decades, according to a research letter published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
The average age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) of HCC were lower in rural (4.85) versus urban areas (6.87). There has been a widening gap in percent change in AAIRs since 1995, with a 218 percent increase in AAIR for rural areas versus 118 percent for urban areas in 2016. In rural areas, men, non-Hispanic Blacks, American Indian/Alaskan Natives, and those aged 60 to 69 years, living in the South, or in areas with high census poverty (≥20 percent) had a continued rapid rise in incidence (annual percentage change ≥5 percent).
AI Model Enhances Histologic Grading of Breast Cancer
A novel deep learning model (DeepGrade) improves prognostic stratification for Nottingham histologic grade 2 (NHG 2) breast tumors, according to a study published in the Annals of Oncology.
Yinxi Wang, from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and colleagues developed and validated a novel histological grade model based on digital whole-slide histopathology images and deep learning to improve risk stratification of NHG 2 breast cancer patients.
The researchers found that in an internal test set, DG provided independent prognostic information for stratification of NHG 2 cases; compared with the DG2-low group, DG2-high showed an increased risk for recurrence after adjustment for established risk factors. In the external test set, the prognostic value of DG was confirmed, with an increased risk for recurrence for DG2-high (hazard ratio, 1.91).