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Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2021 Oct 19:15385744211051495. doi: 10.1177/15385744211051495. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a matter of concern as it contributes significantly to patients’ morbidity and mortality. Data regarding the optimal anticoagulation regimen for VTE prevention and treatment remain scarce. This study describes the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with VTE treated in a single academic center in Mexico.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized in a single academic center in Monterrey, Mexico, between March 2020 and February 2021, with a radiologically confirmed VTE, including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Informed consent was obtained from each patient before reviewing their medical records.
RESULTS: Of the 2000 COVID-19 hospitalized patients, 36 (1.8%) developed VTE and were included in the analysis. The median age was 60 years (range 32-88 years), and up to 78% (n = 28) were males. Most patients (n = 34, 94%) had an underlying comorbidity and 47% (n = 17) had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. In most cases (n=28, 78%), VTE presented as a PE, whereas the remaining 22% (n = 8) had a DVT. The median time between hospital admission and VTE was 8 days (range 0-33 days). Regarding the thromboprophylaxis regimen, 35/36 patients received low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin on admission, most commonly at a dose of 60 mg daily (n = 19, 53%). Other complications presented were superinfection (n = 19, 53%), acute kidney injury (n = 11, 31%), and septic shock (n = 5, 14%). A total of 69% of patients (n = 25) required intensive care unit admission, and patients’ overall mortality was 55.6%.
CONCLUSION: VTE remains a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality among patients with COVID-19. The strikingly high mortality among patients with VTE highlights the need for further investigation regarding the best preventive, diagnostic, and treatment approaches.