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JPRAS Open. 2021 Aug 11;30:116-127. doi: 10.1016/j.jpra.2021.07.010. eCollection 2021 Dec.
BACKGROUND: A reliable venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment model (RAM) can assist surgeons in identifying patients who would benefit from VTE prophylaxis. This systematic review was aimed at summarising the current available evidence on VTE RAMs used in aesthetic plastic surgery.
METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases to include primary studies describing VTE RAMs in aesthetic plastic surgery from 1946 to February 2019. The objective was to compare the different VTE RAMs described for aesthetic plastic surgery to recommend a reliable model to stratify patients.
RESULTS: Of the 557 articles identified in the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, six articles were included in the final review. Five different RAMs were used in the included studies: Caprini 2005 RAM, Caprini 2010 RAM, Davison-Caprini 2004 RAM, the American Society of Anaesthesiologist’s (ASA) physical status grading system and a tool developed by Wes et al. The difference in risk weightage amongst the tools along with the VTE incidences for different categories was compared. The Caprini 2005 RAM was the most widely reported tool and validated in plastic surgery patients.
CONCLUSION: Amongst the five different tools currently used, the Caprini 2005 RAM was the most widely reported. This tool was validated in plastic surgery patients and reported to be a sensitive and reliable tool for VTE risk stratification; therefore, current data support its use until further higher quality evidence becomes available. Because of the heterogeneity of the data and low quality of the current evidence, a definitive recommendation cannot be made on the best VTE RAM for patients undergoing aesthetic plastic surgery. This paper highlights the need for randomised controlled trials evaluating the various RAMs which are essential to support future recommendations and guidelines.