Ann Thorac Med. 2022 Apr-Jun;17(2):94-101. doi: 10.4103/atm.atm_79_21. Epub 2022 Apr 19.
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with substantial mortality as well as morbidity and is largely preventable among hospitalized obstetric women. However, thromboprophylaxis is underutilized in most hospitalized patients.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate VTE risk and adherence to local thromboprophylaxis protocol among hospitalized pre- and postnatal women.
METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at East Jeddah Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2020. The electronic record database of the hospitalized pregnant Saudi women during the years 2018 and 2019 was reviewed. Based on the local hospital protocol, the risk stratification was reassessed by researchers, and the hospital adherence to the prophylaxis was reviewed separately for antenatal and postnatal women.
RESULTS: One thousand and ninety-five electronic records (539 antenatal and 556 postnatal) were reviewed. The postnatal group showed a significantly higher risk compared with an antenatal group (62.2% vs. 11.7%) (P = 0.000). There was a highly significant difference between risk categories assessment by the physicians and the researchers in both groups (P = 0.000). Thromboprophylaxis was overutilized in the low risk (5% heparin and 41.4% heparin and mechanical devices for antenatal and 17.08% heparin and 6.1% heparin and a mechanical device for the postnatal group) and underutilized in intermediate groups (50% no prophylaxis in antenatal and 51.5% mechanical devices in the postnatal group). There was less adherence to documentation in postnatal as compared to antenatal group (83.6% vs. 95%, P = 0.000) for risk documentation and 85.3% versus 91.5% for physician signature (P = 0.001). Thromboprophylaxis was ordered for 21.3% of antenatal (12.2 heparin, 3.5% mechanical, and 5.6% both) and 23.7% of postnatal patients (16.5 heparin, 2% mechanical, and 5.2% both). There were no reported VTE events or bleeding complications.
CONCLUSION: There was a considerable VTE risk among hospitalized obstetric patients which peaked during the postnatal period. Physicians showed good compliance to local VTE protocol with no reported VTE events or drug-induced bleeding. However, the implementation of prophylaxis is associated with both under and overutilization. There is a need for increasing the physicians’ awareness of optimizing VTE risk assessment and documentation for hospitalized obstetric patients.