An Observational Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Rivaroxaban in the Management of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

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Cureus. 2021 Mar 3;13(3):e13663. doi: 10.7759/cureus.13663.

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a relatively rare and underdiagnosed type of stroke. Rivaroxaban is licensed for venous thromboembolism in patients opting for elective knee and hip replacement surgeries, preventing pulmonary embolism and precluding stroke and systemic embolism in sufferers of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Beneficial outcomes depicting the efficacious role of rivaroxaban in treating CVST are under study. Materials and methods We performed a prospective observational study in patients diagnosed with CVST in the medicine or neurology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, between January 2019 and December 2019. The diagnosis of CVST was made by magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in all the cases. Follow-up visits were scheduled at three months and six months, and the occurrence of thrombotic events or bleeding complications was recorded. Follow-up was done by magnetic resonance imaging at three and six months to assess vessel recanalization. Excellent outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 0 or 1. A total of 31 patients were meeting the inclusion criteria and were inducted into the study after informed consent. Results The mean age of the study population was 35.11 ± 8.96 years with 71% females and 29% males. The most prevalent etiology was the pregnancy/postpartum period (52%) followed by antiphospholipid syndrome (23%). The frequent clinical manifestations were headache (84%) followed by vomiting (38%), altered level of consciousness (35%), focal deficit/limb weakness (32%), aphasia (29%), blurring of vision (26%), and seizures (23%). Radiological studies showed that the vessels chiefly occluded in our study were superior sagittal sinus (29%), transverse sinus (23%), sigmoid sinus (16%), jugular vein (9%), and cortical veins (3%). Common features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were cerebral edema (45%), hemorrhage (39%), infarct incidence (32%), and raised intracranial pressure (26%). Clinical outcomes showed 55% of patients had partial recanalization and 39% had complete recanalization after a period of six months of the administration of rivaroxaban. Ninety-three percent (93%) of sufferers recovered excellently according to mRS and only 3% developed recurrent CVST within a span of six months. The frequency of thrombotic events and bleeding complications were reported in 6% of patients, respectively, while mortality reported was also 6%. Conclusion Rivaroxaban has shown promising results in the management of our CVST patients, hence, it further warrants randomized controlled trials of rivaroxaban against conventional treatments to prove its significant role.

PMID:33824814 | PMC:PMC8017467 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.13663