A case-control study on factor V Leiden: an independent, gender-dependent risk factor for venous thromboembolism

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Thromb J. 2021 Oct 19;19(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12959-021-00328-0.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activated protein C resistance (APCR) due to factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (R506Q) is a major risk factor in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present study investigated the clinical manifestations and the risk of venous thromboembolism regarding multiple clinical, laboratory, and demographic properties in FVL patients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a total of 288 FVL patients with VTE according to APCR. In addition, 288 VET control samples, without FVL mutation, were also randomly selected. Demographic information, clinical manifestations, family and treatment history were recorded, and specific tests including t-test, chi-square and uni- and multi-variable regression tests applied.

RESULTS: APCR was found to be 2.3 times significantly more likely in men (OR: 2.1, p < 0.05) than women. The risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in APCR patients was 4.5 and 3.2 times more than the control group, respectively (p < 0.05). However, APCR could not be an independent risk factor for arterial thrombosis (AT) and pregnancy complications. Moreover, patients were evaluated for thrombophilia panel tests and showed significantly lower protein C and S than the control group and patients without DVT (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: FVL mutation and APCR abnormality are noticeable risk factors for VTE. Screening strategies for FVL mutation in patients undergoing surgery, oral contraceptive medication, and pregnancy cannot be recommended, but a phenotypic test for activated protein C resistance should be endorsed in patients with VTE.

PMID:34666770 | DOI:10.1186/s12959-021-00328-0