Racial Disparities in Obesity, T2DM Among Patients with Multiple Myeloma

A new study has identified the existence of racial disparities in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM).

Researchers studied patients in a large health system electronic medical record database to characterize the metabolic phenotype of African American/Black and White people with MM. Specifically, they looked at body mass index (BMI) and HbA1C. They also performed genomic analysis by extracting mutational signatures from tumor samples of the patients and comparing their prevalence by race.

The data were presented at the 2021 International Myeloma Workshop.

Of the 3,170 patients, 21.7% were African American and 78.3% were White. African American women had the highest prevalence of obesity at 46%, followed by White men (41%), African American men (36%), and White women (35%).

Diabetes was highest among African American men (37%) and women (34%) compared with White men (24%) and White women (19%).

The genomic characterization of African American patients showed significant enrichment for the COSMIC SBS1 clock-like mutational signature in African American patients compared with White patients (P<0.05). This was confirmed after adjusting for age. This SBS1 signatures correlated with the age of individuals and may present a cell division clock, the researchers wrote.

“Our findings suggest accelerated aging in African American MM patients, which is concordant with the younger age at diagnosis,” the researchers wrote. Based on these results, it is possible that systemic metabolism and genetics might play a role in racial disparities seen in MM.

These data are from Abstract P-102 “Genomic and systemic metabolism differences associated with racial disparities in multiple myeloma,” presented at IMW 2021, September 8-11, 2021.