This article was originally published here.
Ann Epidemiol. 2020 Aug;48:43-50.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.005. Epub 2020 May 15.
PURPOSE: To visualize variation in multiple myeloma (MM) incidence and mortality rates by race-ethnicity and geographic location and evaluate their correlation with neighborhood-level population covariates within New York City (NYC).
METHODS: Trends and racial differences in MM incidence and mortality for the United States [Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Registry (SEER), National Center for Health Statistics], and NYC [New York State Cancer Registry] were compared using Joinpoint regression. Pearson’s correlation coefficients measured neighborhood-level MM-covariate relationships (n = 34).
RESULTS: MM incidence rates are double in African-Americans compared with Whites, in SEER-13 areas (rate ratio (RR) = 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22-2.32) and NYC (RR = 2.11; 95% CI = 2.03-2.20). Incidence rates increased faster in NYC (average annual percentage change difference, -1.1; 95% CI, -2.3 to -0.1). NYC African-American men experienced the steepest increase in mortality rates after 2001. In NYC, strong neighborhood-level correlations exist between incidence and mortality rates and high prevalence of residents of African ancestry, Latin American birth, daily sugary beverage and low fruit and vegetable consumption, and neighborhood walkability. Higher MM mortality also correlates with Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, diabetes, poverty, HIV/AIDS, air benzene concentration, and indoor pesticide use.
CONCLUSIONS: NYC neighborhoods with large minority populations have higher prevalence of poverty-related factors associated with MM incidence and mortality, warranting public health policies to address exposures and access to care.