This article was originally published here
Transfusion. 2021 May 6. doi: 10.1111/trf.16424. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is a widely used treatment option in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. The optimal graft cellular composition is not known.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Autograft cellular composition was analyzed after freezing by flow cytometry in 127 MM patients participating in a prospective multicenter study. The impact of graft cellular composition on hematologic recovery and outcome after auto-SCT was evaluated.
RESULTS: A higher graft CD34+ cell content predicted faster platelet recovery after auto-SCT in both the short and long term. In patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, a higher graft CD34+ count (>2.5 × 10/kg) was linked with shorter progression-free survival (PFS; 28 vs. 46 months, p = 0.04), but there was no difference in overall survival (OS) (p = 0.53). In a multivariate model, a higher graft CD34+ CD133+ CD38– (>0.065 × 10/kg, p = 0.009) and NK cell count (>2.5 × 10/kg, p = 0.026), lenalidomide maintenance and standard-risk cytogenetics predicted better PFS. In contrast, a higher CD34+ count (>2.5 × 10/kg, p = 0.015) predicted worse PFS. A very low CD3+ cell count (≤20 × 10/kg, p = 0.001) in the infused graft and high-risk cytogenetics remained predictive of worse OS.
CONCLUSIONS: Autograft cellular composition may impact outcome in MM patients after auto-SCT. More studies are needed to define optimal graft composition.