An allogeneic multiple myeloma GM-CSF-secreting vaccine with lenalidomide induces long-term immunity and durable clinical responses in patients in near complete remission

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Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Oct 19:clincanres.CCR-21-1916-A.2021. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1916. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: This proof-of-principle clinical trial evaluated whether an allogeneic multiple myeloma (MM) GM-CSF-secreting vaccine (MM-GVAX) in combination with lenalidomide could deepen the clinical response in patients with MM in sustained near complete remission (nCR).

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifteen patients on lenalidomide were treated with MM-GVAX and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (PrevnarÒ) at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months.

RESULTS: Eight patients (53.3%) achieved a true CR. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the median progression-free survival had not been reached, and the median overall survival was 7.8 years from enrollment. MM-GVAX induced clonal T-cell expansion and measurable cytokine responses that persisted up to 7 years in all patients. At baseline, a higher minimal residual disease was predictive of early relapse. After vaccination, a lack of both CD27DNAM1CD8+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells was associated with disease progression.

CONCLUSIONS: MM-GVAX, along with lenalidomide, effectively primed durable immunity and resulted long-term disease control, as suggested by the reappearance of a detectable, fluctuating M-spike without meeting the criteria for clinical relapse. For patients in a nCR, MM-GVAX administration was safe and resulted in prolonged clinical responses.

PMID:34667029 | DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1916