A management algorithm for vertebral destruction syndrome by multiple myeloma and metastatic spinal cord compression

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Acta Ortop Mex. 2020 Sep-Oct;34(5):293-297.


INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma represents 1% of all cancers and 10% of hematological cancers. Up to 80-90% of cases will have skeletal involvement and the spine is the most frequently involved site. Any intervention must be aimed to improve the patients functional prognosis and will impact their quality of life.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation of vertebral destruction syndrome due to multiple myeloma and to present the management algorithm used for the study and decision-making in treatment.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study design: Retrospective cross-sectional. A search was made in the hospitals clinical file in search of patients with a histological diagnosis of multiple myeloma attended by the Spinal Surgery Service. Clinical characteristics of the initial presentation were obtained such as: presence of pain, ASIA scale and it was categorized according to the Durie-Salmon classification at diagnosis; the levels involved and type of surgery were described.

RESULTS: The study included ten patients with an average age of 61.4 years, 70% were male subjects. All patients were approach according to the modified protocol for vertebral destruction syndrome and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous biopsy. Most had pain at diagnosis, after neurologic examination only 30% were classified as ASIA A. Most of the patients were staged III according to Durie Salomon. The most frequently vertebral segment involved was thoracic. In only one patient more than two vertebrae were involved. After diagnosis of multiple myeloma, nine patients were managed according to a NOMS framework. In the majority they were treated with fusion by posterior approach, six of them were augmented with vertebroplasty. Only one patient of the total, was treated with vertebroplasty alone.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of systematized management algorithms will allow better decisions to be made in conjunction with a multidisciplinary group for the care of multiple myeloma with vertebral involvement.