Time to castration-resistant prostate cancer and prostate cancer death according to PSA response in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists

Scand J Urol. 2022 May 12:1-7. doi: 10.1080/21681805.2022.2070275. Online ahead of print.


Objectives: To predict castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and prostate cancer (Pca) death by use of clinical variables at Pca diagnosis and PSA levels after start of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) in men with non-metastatic castration sensitive prostate cancer (nmCSPC).Materials and Methods: PSA values for 1603 men with nmCSPC in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden who received GnRH as primary treatment were retrieved from Uppsala-Örebro PSA Cohort and Stockholm PSA and Biopsy Register. All men had measured PSA before (pre-GnRH PSA) and 3-6 months after (post-GnRH PSA) date of start of GnRH. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox models were used to predict CRPC by PSA levels. PSA levels and ISUP grade were used to construct a risk score to stratify men by tertiles according to risk of CRPC and Pca death.Results: 788 (49%) men reached CRPC and 456 (28%) died of Pca during follow-up. Post-GnRH PSA predicted CRPC regardless of pre-GnRH PSA. CRPC risk increased with higher post-GnRH PSA, HR 4.7 (95% CI: 3.4-6.7) for PSA > 16 ng/mL vs 0-0.25 ng/mL and with ISUP grade, HR 3.7 (95%: 2.5-5.4) for ISUP 5 vs ISUP 1. Risk of Pca death in men above top vs bellow bottom tertile of post-GnRH PSA and ISUP grade was HR 4.1 (95% CI: 3.0-5.5).Conclusion: A risk score based on post-GnRH PSA and ISUP grade could be used for early identification of a target group for future clinical trials on additional therapy to GnRH.

PMID:35548951 | DOI:10.1080/21681805.2022.2070275