Therapy adjustments in people with type 1 diabetes with impaired hypoglycemia awareness on multiple daily injections using real-time continuous glucose monitoring: a mechanistic analysis of the HypoDE study

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2021 Apr;9(1):e001848. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001848.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown beneficial effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) usage on clinical outcomes. The objective of this analysis was to identify which therapy adjustments were made by people with type 1 diabetes with impaired hypoglycemia awareness during rtCGM usage enabling reductions in the number of low glucose events observed in the HypoDE (Hypoglycemia in Deutschland) study.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the multicenter randomized controlled trial in people with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injections with impaired hypoglycemia awareness, participants recorded their diabetes therapy in 7-day logbooks at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. They used rtCGM or self-monitoring of blood glucose for therapy adjustments. This mechanistic analysis looked at changes in various aspects of therapy.

RESULTS: Logbooks were completed by 70 participants in the rtCGM group and 65 participants in the control group. Participants in the rtCGM group kept their total carbohydrate consumption, daily insulin doses and distribution constant during the study. However, they reported an increased intake of rescue carbohydrates (0.8±0.6 (mean±SD) vs 1.0±0.8 intake/day; baseline-adjusted between-group difference 0.3 intake (0.1-0.5), p=0.031). The glucose threshold at which rescue carbohydrate intake was initiated was elevated from 71±13 mg/dL (3.9±0.7 mmol/L) to 79±14 mg/dL (4.4±0.8 mmol/L) (adjusted between-group difference +7.6 mg/dL (2.4-12.8) (+0.4 mmol/L (0.1-0.7)); p=0.005) in the rtCGM group. Regression analysis showed that follow-up low glucose events were associated with group allocation (p<0.001), low glucose events at baseline (p=0.016) and rescue threshold (p=0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: No major adjustments in insulin therapy were made by study participants with impaired hypoglycemia awareness; however, they were more active in preventing hypoglycemia by taking rescue carbohydrates earlier and more often.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02671968.

PMID:33863716 | DOI:10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001848