Biomolecules. 2021 Apr 18;11(4):594. doi: 10.3390/biom11040594.
Bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma) is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms, with an estimated half a million new cases and 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. This pathology mainly affects men. Men have a higher risk (4:1) of developing bladder cancer than women. Cigarette smoking and exposure to chemicals such as aromatic amines, and aniline dyes have been established as risk factors for bladder cancer and may contribute to the sex disparity. Male internal genitalia, including the urothelium and prostate, are derived from urothelial sinus endoderm; both tissues express the androgen receptor (AR). Several investigations have shown evidence that the AR plays an important role in the initiation and development of different types of cancer including bladder cancer. In this article, we summarize the available data that help to explain the role of the AR in the development and progression of bladder cancer, as well as the therapies used for its treatment.