Simultaneous acute myocardial infarction, bilateral pulmonary embolism, and acute ischaemic cerebral stroke, a delayed complication in a patient with COVID-19 infection: case report

Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2021 Jun 26;5(6):ytab218. doi: 10.1093/ehjcr/ytab218. eCollection 2021 Jun.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The simultaneous occurrence of acute myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and acute cerebral stroke is a rare concomitant finding that requires thorough aetiological investigation. Multiple reports note delayed COVID-19 arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a simultaneous finding after COVID-19.

CASE SUMMARY: A 60-year-old male patient, with a history of Type II diabetes and no risk factors for thromboembolism, experienced simultaneous acute myocardial infarction, bilateral pulmonary embolism, and acute ischaemic stroke. The occurrence of these multi-systemic thromboembolic events made us rule out differential diagnoses of thrombophilia, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, vasculitis, cancer, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale. On laboratory analysis, the patient was positive for IgG SARS-COV2 antibodies, but negative for IgM antibodies and had two negative nasal polymerase chain reaction swab tests. After thorough aetiological investigation, the most probable diagnosis was thought to be delayed complications of COVID-19 infection.

DISCUSSION: Multiple mechanisms, such as endothelial dysfunction, complement activation, and virus-induced antiphospholipid syndrome, may explain the hypercoagulable state related to COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of concomitant multi-systemic thrombosis development, recognized as a delayed complication of COVID-19 infection. This highlights a need among cardiologists for an increased awareness of such late-onset complications. It also emphasizes the importance of identifying the optimal duration and dose of prophylactic anticoagulation as well as the characteristics of the population that would benefit from it after COVID-19.

PMID:34189400 | PMC:PMC8233486 | DOI:10.1093/ehjcr/ytab218