Sex-Based Aortic Dissection Outcomes From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection

Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 May 27:S0003-4975(21)00727-X. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.100. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Worse outcomes have been reported for women with type A acute aortic dissection (TAAD). We sought to determine sex-specific operative approaches and outcomes for TAAD in the current era.

METHODS: The Interventional Cohort (IVC) of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) database was queried to explore sex differences in presentation, operative approach, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify adjusted outcomes in relation to sex.

RESULTS: Women constituted approximately one-third (34.3%) of the 2823 patients and were significantly older than men (65.4 vs 58.6 years, P < .001). Women were more likely to present with intramural hematoma, periaortic hematoma, or complete or partial false lumen thrombosis (all P < .05) and more commonly had hypotension or coma (P = .001). Men underwent a greater proportion of Bentall, complete arch, and elephant trunk procedures (all P < .01). In-hospital mortality during the study period was higher in women (16.7% vs 13.8%, P = .039). After adjustment, female sex trended towards higher in-hospital mortality overall (odds ratio, 1.40; P = .053) but not in the last decade of enrollment (odds ratio, 0.93; P = .807). Five-year mortality and reintervention rates were not significantly different between the sexes.

CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality remains higher among women with TAAD but demonstrates improvement in the last decade. Significant differences in presentation were noted in women, including older age, distinct imaging findings, and greater evidence of malperfusion. Although no distinctions in 5-year mortality or reintervention were observed, a tailored surgical approach should be considered to reduce sex disparities in early mortality rates for TAAD.

PMID:34090668 | DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.100