AIDS. 2021 Mar 11. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002876. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Examine recent trends and differences in all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates by race, ethnicity, and gender among persons with HIV (PWH) in the US and Canada.
DESIGN: HIV clinical cohort consortium.
METHODS: We followed PWH ≥18 years old in care 2005-2015 in six clinical cohorts. We used modified Clinical Classifications Software to categorize hospital discharge diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variances to compare racial and ethnic groups, stratified by gender, adjusted for cohort, calendar year, injection drug use history, and annually-updated age, CD4, and HIV viral load.
RESULTS: Among 27,085 patients (122,566 person-years), 80% were cisgender men, 1% transgender, 43% White, 33% Black, 17% Hispanic of any race, and 1% Indigenous. Unadjusted all-cause hospitalization rates were higher for Black (IRR 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.61) and Indigenous (1.99, 1.44-2.74) versus White cisgender men, and for Indigenous versus White cisgender women (2.55, 1.68-3.89). Unadjusted AIDS-related hospitalization rates were also higher for Black, Hispanic, and Indigenous versus White cisgender men (all P < 0.05). Transgender patients had 1.50 times (1.05-2.14) and cisgender women 1.37 times (1.26-1.48) the unadjusted hospitalization rate of cisgender men. In adjusted analyses, among both cisgender men and women, Black patients had higher rates of cardiovascular and renal/genitourinary hospitalizations compared to Whites (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Black, Hispanic, Indigenous, women, and transgender PWH in the US and Canada experienced substantially higher hospitalization rates than White patients and cisgender men, respectively. Disparities likely have several causes, including differences in virologic suppression and chronic conditions such as diabetes and renal disease.