Racial Disparities in the Utilization and Outcomes of Temporary Mechanical Circulatory Support for Acute Myocardial Infarction-Cardiogenic Shock

J Clin Med. 2021 Apr 2;10(7):1459. doi: 10.3390/jcm10071459.


Racial disparities in utilization and outcomes of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) are infrequently studied. This study sought to evaluate racial disparities in the outcomes of MCS in AMI-CS. The National Inpatient Sample (2012-2017) was used to identify adult AMI-CS admissions receiving MCS support. MCS devices were classified as intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pLVAD) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Self-reported race was classified as white, black and others. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay and discharge disposition. During this period, 90,071 admissions were included with white, black and other races constituting 73.6%, 8.3% and 18.1%, respectively. Compared to white and other races, black race admissions were on average younger, female, with greater comorbidities, and non-cardiac organ failure (all p < 0.001). Compared to the white race (31.3%), in-hospital mortality was comparable in black (31.4%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.05); p = 0.60) and other (30.2%; aOR 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-1.01); p = 0.10). Higher in-hospital mortality was noted in non-white races with concomitant cardiac arrest, and those receiving ECMO support. Black admissions had longer lengths of hospital stay (12.1 ± 14.2, 10.3 ± 11.2, 10.9 ± 1.2 days) and transferred less often (12.6%, 14.2%, 13.9%) compared to white and other races (both p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study of AMI-CS admissions receiving MCS devices did not identify racial disparities in in-hospital mortality. Black admissions had longer hospital stay and were transferred less often. Further evaluation with granular data including angiographic and hemodynamic parameters is essential to rule out racial differences.

PMID:33918132 | DOI:10.3390/jcm10071459