Racial and Sex Disparities in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the USA

Curr Hepatol Rep. 2020 Dec;19(4):462-469. doi: 10.1007/s11901-020-00554-6. Epub 2020 Nov 12.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we aim to provide a summary of the current literature on race and gender disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence, stage at diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in the United States.

RECENT FINDINGS: HCC incidence rates are rising in the U.S. in all racial/ethnic groups except for Asian/Pacific Islanders, with disproportionate rises and the highest rates among Hispanics compared to Blacks and non-Hispanic whites. There are striking sex disparities in HCC incidence and mortality; however, with the shifting epidemiology of HCC risk factors in the U.S, there is recent evidence that HCC is trending towards less male predominance, particularly among younger birth cohorts. Despite significant advances in HCC treatment over the past decade, disparities in HCC surveillance and treatment receipt persist among racial and ethnic minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. Black patients continue to experience worse survival outcomes than non-Black patients with HCC.

SUMMARY: There are significant racial and gender disparities in HCC incidence, treatment, and mortality in the U.S. Though these disparities are well-documented, data are still limited on the specific determinants driving disparities in HCC. To achieve health equity for all patients with HCC, we must advance beyond simply reporting on disparities and begin implementing targeted interventions to eliminate disparities.

PMID:33828937 | PMC:PMC8020839 | DOI:10.1007/s11901-020-00554-6