J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Feb 23:e018155. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.018155. Online ahead of print.
Background Pre-pregnancy hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP; preeclampsia, eclampsia, gestational hypertension) are major health risks for maternal morbidity and mortality. However, it is unknown if racial/ethnic differences exist. We aimed to determine the impact of HDP and pre-pregnancy hypertension on maternal coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality risk ≤1, 3, and 5 years post-delivery and by race/ethnicity ≤5 years. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included women aged 12 to 49 years with a live, singleton birth between 2004 to 2016 (n=254 491 non-Hispanic White; n=137 784 non-Hispanic Black; n=41 155 Hispanic). Birth and death certificates and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes in hospitalization/emergency department visit data defined HDP, pre-pregnancy hypertension, incident coronary heart disease and stroke, and all-cause mortality. During at least 1 pregnancy of the 433 430 women, 2.3% had pre-pregnancy hypertension with superimposed HDP, 15.7% had no pre-pregnancy hypertension with HDP, and 0.4% had pre-pregnancy hypertension without superimposed HDP, whereas 81.6% had neither condition. Maternal deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes totaled 2136. Within 5 years of delivery, pre-pregnancy hypertension, and HDP were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; 95% CI, 1.61-3.03), incident coronary heart disease (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 3.09-4.65), and incident stroke (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.09-4.60). HDP alone was related to all outcomes. Race/ethnic differences were observed for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women, respectively, in the associations of pre-pregnancy hypertension and HDP with all-cause mortality within 5 years of delivery (HR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.58-3.47]; HR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.23-3.65]; P interaction=0.001). Conclusions Maternal cardiovascular outcomes including mortality were increased ≤5 years post-delivery in HDP, pre-pregnancy hypertension, or pre-pregnancy hypertension with superimposed HDP. The race/ethnic interaction for all-cause mortality ≤5 years of delivery warrants further research.