Cancer Epidemiol. 2021 Apr 13;72:101938. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2021.101938. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Kidney cancer incidence is increasing among Hispanics but rate differences by distinct group, such as Cuban, Puerto Rican, and Mexican have not been studied. To fill this knowledge gap, we use mortality data, reflecting fatal kidney cancers, to examine patterns by race-ethnicity, including detailed Hispanic groups, and correlate the mortality rates with each group’s prevalence of known kidney cancer risk factors: smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease.
METHODS: We used individual-level death data for California, Florida, and New York (2008-2018), and population prevalence data from the National Health Interview Surveys (2008-2018). Age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) and regression-derived mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were computed. Pearson correlation analyses assessed the extent to which group-specific risk factor prevalence explained variability in observed AAMRs.
RESULTS: US-born Mexican Americans and American Indians had the highest rates and MRRs compared to Whites: 1.44 (95 %CI: 1.35-1.53) and 1.51 (1.38-1.64) for Mexican American men and women, respectively, and 1.54 (95 %CI: 1.25-1.89) and 1.53 (95 %CI: 1.15-2.04) for American Indians. In contrast, non-Mexican Hispanics had lower rates than Whites. Among males, positive correlations between AAMRs and smoking, obesity, and chronic kidney disease prevalence by race-ethnicity were found.
CONCLUSION: Mexican Americans and American Indians are high-risk for fatal kidney cancer. Disparities are only partially attributable to higher smoking and obesity prevalence, and more so among men than women. A shared risk factor profile, as well as possible genetic similarities, may explain their disproportionately higher kidney cancer mortality, but further research is warranted.