J Clin Med. 2021 May 31;10(11):2438. doi: 10.3390/jcm10112438.
Identifying risk factors is crucial for predicting papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with severe course, which causes a clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to assess whether male sex can be such a predictive factor and to verify whether including it as a predictive factor of high initial risk of recurrence/persistence would help to enhance the value of the American Thyroid Association initial risk stratification system (ATA). We retrospectively analyzed 1547 PTC patients (1358 females and 189 males), treated from 1986 to 2018. The relationship between sex and clinicopathological features, response to therapy, and disease status was assessed. Men with PTC showed some adverse clinicopathological features more often than women, including angioinvasion, lymph node metastases, and tumor size > 40 mm. There were sex-related disparities with respect to response to initial therapy and final follow-up. Male sex is associated with some unfavorable clinicopathological features of PTC, which may affect response to initial therapy or final disease status. In our study, modification of the ATA system by including male sex as a risk factor does not enhance its value. Thus, further studies are needed to assess whether males require treatment modalities or oncological follow-up protocols that are different from those of females.