Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2021 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-05997-w. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Patients with lung metastases (LM) from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) (EOCLM) usually have a poor prognosis. However, there is no consensus on the optimal management of these patients. In this study, we aimed to take a look at the incidence of LM and factors associated with its occurrence as well as the prognosis in newly diagnosed EOC with LM on a population level.
METHODS: EOC patients diagnosed between the years 2010 and 2016 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database. Multivariable logistic regression and multivariable Cox regression were used to investigate the factors that could predict the occurrence of and prognosis after diagnosis of EOC with LM.
RESULTS: Of the 33,418 qualified EOC patients, 2240 (6.7%) were noted to have LMs at the time of EOC diagnosis. Higher T stage, N1 stage, advanced tumor grade, and elevated cancer antigen-125 levels were found to be associated with a higher risk of having LM at the time of EOC diagnosis. The median survival time after diagnosis with EOCLM was found to be 13.0 months (interquartile range: 3.0-34.0 months). Being unmarried and having mucinous histology were both associated with increased all-cause death risk from EOCLM. However, the primary tumor originated from the midline of ovaries, surgical management, and whether patient received chemotherapy or not predicted improved overall survival. The median survival time of patients was significantly longer for EOCLM cases managed surgically (31.0 months) versus those who did not have surgery (4.0 months), as well as EOCLM cases received chemotherapy (23.0 months) versus those who did not have chemotherapy (2.0 months).
CONCLUSION: This retrospective cohort study showed that de novo LM was infrequent in EOC patients overall and when present predicted poor prognosis. The findings can be potentially useful in formulating for follow-up strategies, screening tools, and personalized interventions.