Int J Med Inform. 2020 Oct 5;144:104294. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104294. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: We previously reported improved outcomes after implementing the electronic-AsthmaTracker (e-AT), a self-monitoring tool for children with asthma, at 11 ambulatory pediatric clinics. This study assesses e-AT adherence and impact across race/ethnicity subgroups.
STUDY DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of children ages 2-17 years with persistent asthma, enrolled from January 2014 to December 2015 to use the e-AT for 1 year. Survival analysis was used to compare e-AT use adherence and generalized estimating equation models to compare outcomes pre- and post e-AT initiation, between race/ethnicity subgroups.
RESULTS: Data from 318 children with baseline measurements were analyzed: 76.4 % white, 11.3 % Hispanic, 7.8 % “other”, and 4.4 % unknown race/ethnicity subgroups. Mean e-AT adherence was 82 % (95 %CI: 79-84 %, reference) for whites, 73 % (64-81 %, p = 0.025) for Hispanics, and 78 % (69-86 %, p = 0.373) for other minorities. Compared to whites, Cox proportional hazard ratio for study dropout risk was 2.14 (1.31-3.77, p = 0.001) for Hispanics and 0.95 (0.60-1.50, p = 0.834) for other minorities. Disparities existed at baseline, with lower QOL (74.9 vs 80.6; p = 0.025) and asthma control (18.4 vs 19.7; p = 0.027) among Hispanics, compared to whites. After e-AT initiation, disparities disappeared at 3 months for QOL (87.2 vs 90.5; p = 0.159) and asthma control (23.1 vs 22.4; p = 0.063), persisting until study end. Disparities also existed at baseline, with lower QOL (74.6 vs. 80.6; p = 0.042) and asthma control (18.2 vs. 19.7, p = 0.024) among “other” minorities, compared to whites, and disappeared at 3 months for QOL (92.7 vs. 90.5, p = 0.432) and asthma control (22.7 vs 22.4; p = 0.518), persisting until study end. Subgroup analysis was underpowered to detect a difference in oral steroid use or ED/hospital admissions.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows improved asthma control and QOL among minorities and disparity elimination after e-AT implementation. Future adequately powered studies will explore the impact on oral steroid and ED/hospital use disparities.