Immunoprofiling Correlates of Protection Against SHIV Infection in Adjuvanted HIV-1 Pox-Protein Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques

Front Immunol. 2021 May 11;12:625030. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.625030. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major public health threat due to its incurable nature and the lack of a highly efficacious vaccine. The RV144 vaccine trial is the only clinical study to date that demonstrated significant but modest decrease in HIV infection risk. To improve HIV-1 vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy, we recently evaluated pox-protein vaccination using a next generation liposome-based adjuvant, Army Liposomal Formulation adsorbed to aluminum (ALFA), in rhesus monkeys and observed 90% efficacy against limiting dose mucosal SHIV challenge in male animals. Here, we analyzed binding antibody responses, as assessed by Fc array profiling using a broad range of HIV-1 envelope antigens and Fc features, to explore the mechanisms of ALFA-mediated protection by employing machine learning and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. We found that Fcγ receptor 2a-related binding antibody responses were augmented by ALFA relative to aluminium hydroxide, and these responses were associated with reduced risk of infection in male animals. Our results highlight the application of systems serology to provide mechanistic insights to vaccine-elicited protection and support evidence that antibody effector responses protect against HIV-1 infection.

PMID:34046030 | PMC:PMC8144500 | DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.625030