Identifying the Associated Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance During the COVID-19 Lockdown in Bangladesh: A Web-Based Survey

Front Psychiatry. 2020 Sep 17;11:580268. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.580268. eCollection 2020.


BACKGROUND: Bangladesh, a developing country with a lower-middle-income and one of the world’s most densely populated areas, has been severely affected by COVID-19. This global epidemic is not only affecting the physical health of the patients but also causing severe psychological effects among those who have not yet been infected. Sleep disturbance is one of the key symptoms of major depression and one of the proven risk factors for suicide. The objective of this study is to identify the risk factors associated with sleep disturbance which has developed as a general impact of COVID-19 and new normal life during the lockdown (a measure to control the spread of COVID-19) in Bangladesh.

METHODS: Demographic characteristics, COVID-19, and lockdown related information have been collected from 1,128 individuals by conducting a web-based survey. Respondent’s perspective regarding sleep disturbance during COVID-19 lockdown is considered as the outcome of interest which is dichotomous. Descriptive statistics methods have been applied to explore the distribution of respondent’s demographic characteristics. Pearson’s chi-square tests have been performed to relate the sleep disturbance status of the respondents to their demographic, personal, and COVID-19 related information. Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression model has been adopted to identify the significant association of sleep disturbance with the demographic, COVID-19, and lockdown related information of respondents during the COVID-19 lockdown in Bangladesh.

FINDINGS: The prevalence of sleep disturbance during the COVID-19 lockdown is found to be higher among participants aged 31-40 years. Gender disparity has also been observed in favor of male participants, whereas no significant regional heterogeneity has been found. Working from home or doing online classes during the lockdown has been found as a potential predictive factor of sleep disturbance. Losing a job has been considered as an adverse economic effect of COVID-19, which also induces sleep disturbance. Perception regarding the risk of getting infected and anxiety triggered the chance of developing sleep disturbance. The sleeping schedule is also found as a risk factor for sleep disturbance.

CONCLUSION: Evidence-based policies are required to combat psychological challenges that have arisen due to COVID-19, primarily targeting the groups who are largely suffering from sleep disturbance.

PMID:33093839 | PMC:PMC7527420 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.580268