Handheld Fundus Camera for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening: A Comparison Study with Table-Top Fundus Camera in Real-Life Setting

J Clin Med. 2022 Apr 22;11(9):2352. doi: 10.3390/jcm11092352.


The aim of the study was to validate the performance of the Optomed Aurora® handheld fundus camera in diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. Patients who were affected by diabetes mellitus and referred to the local DR screening service underwent fundus photography using a standard table-top fundus camera and the Optomed Aurora® handheld fundus camera. All photos were taken by a single, previously unexperienced operator. Among 423 enrolled eyes, we found a prevalence of 3.55% and 3.31% referable cases with the Aurora® and with the standard table-top fundus camera, respectively. The Aurora® obtained a sensitivity of 96.9% and a specificity of 94.8% in recognizing the presence of any degree of DR, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.8% for any degree of diabetic maculopathy (DM) and a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99.8% for referable cases. The overall concordance coefficient k (95% CI) was 0.889 (0.828-0.949) and 0.831 (0.658-1.004) with linear weighting for DR and DM, respectively. The presence of hypertensive retinopathy (HR) was recognized by the Aurora® with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The Optomed Aurora® handheld fundus camera proved to be effective in recognizing referable cases in a real-life DR screening setting. It showed comparable results to a standard table-top fundus camera in DR, DM and HR detection and grading. The Aurora® can be integrated into telemedicine solutions and artificial intelligence services which, in addition to its portability and ease of use, make it particularly suitable for DR screening.

PMID:35566478 | PMC:PMC9103652 | DOI:10.3390/jcm11092352