Front Genet. 2022 Mar 14;13:822666. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2022.822666. eCollection 2022.
Cancer research has seen explosive development exploring deep learning (DL) techniques for analysing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images for predicting brain tumours. We have observed a substantial gap in explanation, interpretability, and high accuracy for DL models. Consequently, we propose an explanation-driven DL model by utilising a convolutional neural network (CNN), local interpretable model-agnostic explanation (LIME), and Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) for the prediction of discrete subtypes of brain tumours (meningioma, glioma, and pituitary) using an MRI image dataset. Unlike previous models, our model used a dual-input CNN approach to prevail over the classification challenge with images of inferior quality in terms of noise and metal artifacts by adding Gaussian noise. Our CNN training results reveal 94.64% accuracy as compared to other state-of-the-art methods. We used SHAP to ensure consistency and local accuracy for interpretation as Shapley values examine all future predictions applying all possible combinations of inputs. In contrast, LIME constructs sparse linear models around each prediction to illustrate how the model operates in the immediate area. Our emphasis for this study is interpretability and high accuracy, which is critical for realising disparities in predictive performance, helpful in developing trust, and essential in integration into clinical practice. The proposed method has a vast clinical application that could potentially be used for mass screening in resource-constraint countries.