J Adolesc Health. 2020 Oct 19:S1054-139X(20)30528-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.09.009. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Parent and caregiver support can reduce health disparities experienced by gender diverse youth (GDY). Parent and caregiver empowerment improves health outcomes for children with medical and mental health diagnoses, but no existing scale measures this construct in families of GDY. We aimed to develop a scale measuring empowerment in parents and caregivers of GDY.
METHODS: We adapted two existing scales and added investigator-derived items to create a survey instrument. We revised using input from focus groups and experts assessing face and content validity. Using the revised scale, we surveyed parents and caregivers of GDY from across the U.S. to assess the construct validity through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, internal consistency, and convergent validity.
RESULTS: The initial 67 items were reduced to 42 items after face and content validity analyses. Parents and caregivers (n = 309) from 31 states completed the revised measure. Most participants were white (81.4%), mothers (69.3%), and parenting a gender diverse child who identifies on the binary (transmasculine, male, transfeminine, or female; 91.3%). Exploratory factor analyses showed a two-factor solution: Factor 1 having 10 items (Cronbach’s alpha = .86) and Factor 2 having six items (Cronbach’s alpha = .86). Our confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit (Comparative Factor Index = .972, Tucker-Lewis Index = .968, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060 [90% confidence interval = .410-.078], and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = .062).
CONCLUSIONS: The Transgender Family Acceptance To Empowerment (TransFATE) scale demonstrates face, content, and construct validity among a geographically diverse sample of GDY’s parents and caregivers. This scale has the potential to aid in developing and evaluating programs focused on building stronger social supports for GDY through increased family empowerment.
PMID:33268218 | DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.09.009