Decreased patient comorbidities and post-operative complications in technology-assisted compared to conventional total knee arthroplasty

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2022 Apr 13. doi: 10.1007/s00167-022-06966-9. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The use of computer-assisted and robotic surgery was developed to improve component position and outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The goal of this study is to identify differences in patient demographics, comorbidities, and complications between technology-assisted and conventional TKA.

METHODS: A Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients who underwent technology-assisted and conventional TKA from 2016 to 2018. Analysed variables include demographics, length of stay (LOS), payer-status, geographic region, comorbidities, complications, and mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify differences between both groups.

RESULTS: The analysis includes 2,208,434 TKA patients, of which 2,054,879 (93.05%) were conventional and 153,555 (6.95%) were technology assisted. Patients undergoing technology-assisted TKA were more likely to be older than 65 years, had higher median income quartile, and had surgery in urban teaching hospitals. Patients were less likely to undergo technology-assisted TKA if they were female gender, had Medicare payer status, were black race, were obese, were living in rural location, or had higher Charlson comorbidity score and baseline comorbidities. Technology-assisted TKA patients had shorter LOS, and fewer pulmonary and infection complications.

CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing technology-assisted TKA are being carefully selected with less baseline comorbidities, improved health, and living in urban areas. Subsequently, those carefully selected patients are discharged home, have a shorted hospital LOS, and have fewer complications compared to conventional TKA. Rural patients, black race and female gender are less likely to undergo technology-assisted TKA, further emphasizing the healthcare disparity for that segment of the population.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic level III.

PMID:35419705 | DOI:10.1007/s00167-022-06966-9