J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2020 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s00432-020-03380-x. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 or its ligand (anti-PD-1/L1) monotherapy has become the standard second-line treatment in advanced lung adenocarcinoma. However, the strategy treatment of anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis therapy has not been evaluated. We conducted this retrospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis therapy in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma in the second-line or later setting.
METHODS: Patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who received anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis therapy or anti-PD-1/L1 monotherapy in the second-line or later treatment from March 2015 to May 2019 in PLA General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety were assessed. Multivariate analyses of PFS and OS were performed with Cox proportional hazard regression models.
RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were included in our study. Twenty-five patients were treated with anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis therapy, and forty-nine patients were treated with anti-PD-1/L1 monotherapy. The disease control rate (DCR) was higher in the anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis group than in the anti-PD-1/L1 monotherapy group (92.0% vs. 46.9%, P = 0.0004). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months vs. 2.0 months (HR 0.551 [95% confidence interval 0.337-0.902], P = 0.002) and median overall survival (OS) was 14.3 months vs. 8.4 months (HR 0.549 [95% CI 0.305-0.990], P = 0.046), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models showed that anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis group had prolonged PFS (HR 0.541 [95% CI 0.298-0.981], P = 0.033). The incidences of grade 3/4 adverse events were 12% (3/25) in anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis group and 6% (3/49) in anti-PD-1/L1 monotherapy group.
CONCLUSION: Compared with anti-PD-1/L1 monotherapy, anti-PD-1/L1 plus anti-angiogenesis therapy could significantly improve the clinical response and bring longer PFS and OS in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who had failed first-line or later treatment. Further prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.