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Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2021 Jan 19;12(1). doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10427.
OBJECTIVE: Early identification of atherosclerosis using a non-invasive tool like ankle-brachial index (ABI) could help reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease among long-term hemodialysis patients. The study objective was to assess the frequency and impact of abnormal ABI as a marker of subclinical peripheral artery disease (PAD) in chronic hemodialysis patients.
METHODS: This was a historic cohort study of kidney failure patients on long-term hemodialysis for at least 6 months. The ABI, measured with two oscillometric blood pressure devices simultaneously, was used to assess subclinical atherosclerosis of low limb extremities. Abnormal ABI was defined as ABI <0.9 or >1.3 (PAD present). Survival was defined as time to death. Independent factors associated with abnormal ABI were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test) was used to compare cumulative survival between the two groups; a P value <0.05 was statistically significant.
RESULTS: Abnormal ABI was noted in 50.6% (n=43) of the 85 kidney failure patients included in the study; 42.4% (n=36) had a low ABI, and 8.2% (n=7) had a high ABI. Factors associated with PAD present were cholesterol (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.04; P=0.019), inflammation (AOR, 9.44; 95% CI, 2.30-18.77; P=0.002), phosphocalcic product (AOR, 6.25; 95% CI, 1.19-12.87; P=0.031), and cardiac arrhythmias (AOR, 3.78; 95% CI, 1.55-7.81, P=0.009). Cumulative survival was worse among patients with PAD present (log-rank; P=0.032).
CONCLUSION: The presence of PAD was a common finding in the present study, and associated with both traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors as well as a worse survival rate than patients without PAD.