Prevalence and risk factors of peripheral artery disease in a population with chronic kidney disease in Australia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

This article was originally published here

Nephrology (Carlton). 2021 Jun 22. doi: 10.1111/nep.13914. Online ahead of print.


There is a lack of clarity and guidance for screening peripheral artery disease (PAD) in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage kidney disease (ESKD) despite this group being at excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this current study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence and risk factors for PAD in persons with CKD in Australian cohorts. We used the inverse variance heterogeneity meta-analysis with double arcsine transformation to summarize the prevalence of PAD (with 95% CIs). Nine studies and 18 reports from the Australia and New Zealand dialysis and transplant registry with 36 cohorts were included in the review. We found a substantially higher PAD prevalence in cohorts based on an ankle-brachial index (ABI) or toe systolic pressure (TBI) than cohorts based on self-reported history. Higher PAD prevalence was observed in ESKD persons than CKD persons without dialysis (PAD diagnosis based on ABI or TBI: 31% in ESKD persons and 23% in CKD persons, PAD diagnosis based on self-reported history: 17% in ESKD persons and 10% in CKD persons). Older age, Caucasian race, cerebrovascular disease and hemodialysis were associated with the presence of PAD in ESKD persons. Our findings indicated a considerable proportion of PAD in CKD and ESKD persons particularly in those with ESKD. To develop and provide an adequate plan to clinically manage CKD patients with PAD, evidence of cost-effectiveness and clinical benefit of early detection of PAD in persons with CKD in Australia is recommended for future studies.

PMID:34156137 | DOI:10.1111/nep.13914