Macrophage Polarization as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Endovascular Intervention in Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has a significant impact on human health, affecting 200 million people globally. Advanced PAD severely diminishes quality of life, affecting mobility, and in its most severe form leads to limb amputation and death. Treatment of PAD is among the least effective of all endovascular procedures in terms of long-term efficacy. Chronic inflammation is a key driver of PAD; however, stents and coated balloons eluting antiproliferative drugs are most commonly used. As a result, neither stents nor coated balloons produce durable clinical outcomes in the superficial femoral artery, and both have recently been associated with significantly increased mortality. This review summarizes the most common clinical approaches and limitations to treating PAD and highlights the necessity to address the underlying causes of inflammation, identifying macrophages as a novel therapeutic target in the next generation of endovascular PAD intervention.