Current, Former Smoking Status Linked with Mortality Marker

New research suggests that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a mortality marker, is present in both current and former smokers with coronary artery disease. Researchers for the study looked at a prospective cohort of 2,418 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. They measured GDF-15 levels in 955 never-smokers, 1,035 former smokers, and in … Continue reading Current, Former Smoking Status Linked with Mortality Marker