This article was originally published here
Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Jan 13;12(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s13287-020-02110-x.
INTRODUCTION: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most advanced form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) characterized by ischemic rest pain and non-healing ulcers. Currently, the standard therapy for CLI is the surgical reconstruction and endovascular therapy or limb amputation for patients with no treatment options. Neovasculogenesis induced by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy is a promising approach to improve CLI. Owing to their angiogenic and immunomodulatory potential, MSCs are perfect candidates for the treatment of CLI. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the in vitro and in vivo effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on CLI treatment.
METHODS: For the first step, BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were isolated and characterized for the characteristic MSC phenotypes. Then, femoral artery ligation and total excision of the femoral artery were performed on C57BL/6 mice to create a CLI model. The cells were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo biological characteristics for CLI cell therapy. In order to determine these characteristics, the following tests were performed: morphology, flow cytometry, differentiation to osteocyte and adipocyte, wound healing assay, and behavioral tests including Tarlov, Ischemia, Modified ischemia, Function and the grade of limb necrosis scores, donor cell survival assay, and histological analysis.
RESULTS: Our cellular and functional tests indicated that during 28 days after cell transplantation, BM-MSCs had a great effect on endothelial cell migration, muscle restructure, functional improvements, and neovascularization in ischemic tissues compared with AT-MSCs and control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Allogeneic BM-MSC transplantation resulted in a more effective recovery from critical limb ischemia compared to AT-MSCs transplantation. In fact, BM-MSC transplantation could be considered as a promising therapy for diseases with insufficient angiogenesis including hindlimb ischemia.