Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 3. doi: 10.1007/s00228-022-03346-7. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review to identify studies that assessed the association between CYP2C19 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients who took clopidogrel.
METHODS: We systematically searched Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science from November 1997 (inception) to September 2020. We included observational studies evaluating how CYP2C19 polymorphism is associated with clopidogrel’s effectiveness and safety among patients with PAD. We extracted relevant information details from eligible studies (e.g., study type, patient population, study outcomes). We used the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions (ROBINS-I) Tool to assess the risk of bias for included observational studies.
RESULTS: The outcomes of interest were the effectiveness and safety of clopidogrel. The effectiveness outcomes included clinical ineffectiveness (e.g., restenosis). The safety outcomes included bleeding and death related to the use of clopidogrel. We identified four observational studies with a sample size ranging from 50 to 278. Outcomes and comparison groups of the studies varied. Three studies (75%) had an overall low risk of bias. All included studies demonstrated that carrying CYP2C19 loss of function (LOF) alleles was significantly associated with reduced clinical effectiveness and safety of clopidogrel.
CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review showed an association between CYP2C19 LOF alleles and reduced functions of clopidogrel. The use of CYP2C19 testing in PAD patients prescribed clopidogrel may help improve the clinical outcomes. However, based on the limited evidence, there is a need for randomized clinical trials in PAD patients to test both the effectiveness and safety outcomes of clopidogrel.