Nutritional and Dietary Requirements in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and CKD

There is a significant correlation between type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD); up to 40% of patients with diabetes develop CKD as a direct result of diabetic complications. Patients with CKD have a need for a disease-specific diet, making management of diabetes challenging. Patients with CKD also face increased risk of complications associated with malnutrition, necessitating dietary needs and nutritional requirements tailored to individual patients.

Researchers led by Nourhan Khaled Hassan, MD, recently conducted a systematic review to examine nutritional requirements for patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure. The researchers screened 85 articles; of those, 22 were analyzed and included as per the study criteria. The data search included PubMed using medical subject headings terms, and a literature review through the Cochrane library and the British Medical Journal. Results were reported online in Current Diabetes Reviews [doi:10.2174/15733998166662000211120402].

The review highlighted nutrients and minerals needed to be maintained within a specified range defined by a patient’s needs and conditions. Dietary restrictions to prevent disease progression were also necessary. Patients receiving hemodialysis required vigorous monitoring of blood glucose levels as well as strict management of dietary intake. Risk-to-benefit ratios were utilized to determine optimal protein intake in patients on hemodialysis.

“Dietary requirements should be individualized based on the patient’s disease severity and progression. Assessment of the patient’s previous and current diet, as well as matching it with their dietary requirements and preferences is crucial,” the researchers said.