Incidence and Outcomes of AKI in Pediatric Patients with COVID-19

There are few data available on the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), associated risk factors, treatment, and mortality among pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). AKI is recognized as a severe complication among children and adolescents with COVID-19. Rupesh Raina, MD, and colleagues conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify published literature related to AKI in pediatric COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes.

The researchers searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Center Trials and identified 24 studies that reported outcomes of interest. Across all 24 studies, there were 1247 children who tested positive for COVID-19. Median age of the population was 9.1 years. AKI incidence was 30.51%; only 0.56% required kidney replacement therapy. The mortality rate was 2.55%, and the incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome was 74.29%.

“AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates,” the researchers said. “Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.”