AKI in COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) are at increased risk for mortality. Tahereh Sabaghian, MD, and colleagues conducted a systemic review designed to assess the symptoms, complications, and treatments performed to manage AKI in patients with COVID-19. The search included PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE relevant scientific literature published up to February 1, 2022. The keywords used were “COVID-19,” “SARS-CoV-2,” and “acute kidney injury.”

The review included 44 studies representing 114 COVID-19 patients with AKI; mean age of the participants was 53.6 years. The most common comorbidities in the patients with COVID-19 and AKI were history of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. In 12 of the 44 studies, participants had a history of AKI.

The most common pathological evidence of AKI was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and acute tubular necrosis. The average length of stay in the hospital was 19 days, and the average duration of need for mechanical ventilation was 3 days.

In conclusion, the researchers said, “The current systemic review shows that AKI frequently complicates the course of COVID-19 hospitalizations and is associated with increased severity of illness, prolonged duration of  hospitalization, and poor prognosis. Given the extent of the adverse impact of AKI, early detection of comorbidities and renal complications is essential to improve the outcomes of COVID-19 patients.”