Outcomes in Pediatric COVID-19 with Renal Involvement

NKF Spring Clinical Meetings 2021

There are few data available on the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality rate among pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). AKI is a common and severe complication in children and adolescents with COVID-19, and an understanding of the disease will aid in development of treatment and preventative care strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in that patient population.

Isabelle Mawby and colleagues conducted a study to examine the incidence of AKI among COVID-19 patients in pediatric ICUs in North American using the Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS) database. The researchers also sought to assess COVID-19-related risk factors; treatments, including kidney replacement therapy (KRT); and mortality rates. Results of the analysis were reported during a virtual poster session at the NKF Spring Clinical Meetings 2021 in a poster titled Acute Kidney Injury in COVID-19 Pediatric Patients: Analysis of the Virtual Pediatric Systems Data.

The retrospective study included patients ≤24 years of age with COVID-19 in the VPS COVID-19 database who were admitted to the ICU between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. The poster reported results of analysis of data on 1240 pediatric patients with COVID-19.

Of the 1240 patients, 172 had renal/urinary system involvement. Of those 172, there were 19 confirmed deaths, translating to 45% of all confirmed pediatric COVID-19 deaths associated with renal involvement. Of the 36 patients who required KRT, two died. An additional 264 (24.67%) patients were diagnosed with MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children).

In conclusion, the researchers said, “Although COVID-19 in the pediatric population tends to present more favorably, renal involvement among the pediatric COVID-19 population may be considered a negative prognostic factor with respect to patient outcomes.”

Source: Mawby I, Chakraborty R, Pandya A, Mahajan S, Raina R. Acute kidney injury in COVID-19 pediatric patients: Analysis of the virtual pediatric system data. Abstract of a poster presented at the virtual National Kidney Foundation Spring Clinical Meetings 2021 (Poster #16), April 9, 2021.