Oral carcinoma: Clinical evaluation using diffusion kurtosis imaging and its correlation with histopathologic findings

Publication date: September 2018
Source:Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Volume 51
Author(s): Ichiro Yamada, Norio Yoshino, Keigo Hikishima, Junichiro Sakamoto, Misaki Yokokawa, Yu Oikawa, Hiroyuki Harada, Tohru Kurabayashi, Yukihisa Saida, Ukihide Tateishi, Akane Yukimori, Toshiyuki Izumo, Shun Asahina
PurposeIn this study, we aimed to determine the usefulness of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) as a noninvasive method for evaluation of the histologic grade and lymph node metastasis in patients with oral carcinoma.Materials and methodsTwenty-seven patients with oral carcinoma were examined with a 3-T MR system and 16-channel coil. DKI data were obtained by a single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence with repetition time, 10,000 ms; echo time, 94 ms; field of view, 250 × 204.25 ms; matrix, 120 × 98; section thickness, 4 mm; four b values of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 s/mm2; and motion-probing gradients in three orthogonal directions. Diffusivity (D) and kurtosis (K) were calculated using the equation: S = S0 ∙ exp(−b ∙ D + b2 ∙ D2 ∙ K/6). Conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was also calculated. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings.ResultsRelative to the histologic grades (Grades 1, 2, and 3) of the 27 oral carcinomas, D values showed a significant inverse correlation (r = −0.885; P < 0.001) and K values showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.869; P < 0.001), whereas ADC values showed no significant correlation (r = −0.311; P = 0.115). When comparing between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes, significant differences in the D values (P < 0.001) and K values (P < 0.001), but not the ADC values (P = 0.110) became apparent.ConclusionsIn patients with oral carcinoma, DKI seems to be clinically useful for the evaluation of histologic grades and lymph node metastasis.