Ventilation inhomogeneity and NO and CO diffusing capacity in ex-premature school children

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Respiratory Medicine, Volume 140
Author(s): Jesper Kiehn Sørensen, Frederik Buchvald, Anna Korsgaard Berg, Paul D. Robinson, Kim Gjerum Nielsen
AimEx-premature school children show mild-to-moderate airway obstruction and decreased CO diffusing capacity. Multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) and NO diffusing capacity (DLNO) measurements may provide new insight into long-term pulmonary and vascular impairment in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).MethodsWe examined a randomly selected group of 70 ex-premature children (gestational age <28 weeks or birth weight <1500 g; 42 with and 28 without BPD) and 38 term-born healthy controls of 8–13 years of age. Subjects performed N2MBW (lung clearance index, LCI; Sacin, and Scond), DLNO (membrane related diffusing capacity, Dm and pulmonary capillary volume, Vc), Fractional exhaled NO, CO diffusing capacity, conventional spirometry (FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75) and plethysmography (RV, TLC). Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire.ResultsCompared to healthy controls, the BPD group had higher z-scores for lung clearance index (P = 0.003), Sacin (P = 0.005), lower CO diffusing capacity (P = 0.025), DLNO (P = 0.022), DLNO/VA z-scores (P = 0.025) and a significant larger proportion had respiratory complaints. Amongst ex-premature children, the BPD group did not differ from the non-BPD group except for a decreased Dm (P = 0.023). Ex-premature with BPD showed predominantly airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC; P < 0.0001), signs of hyperinflation (RV/TLC-ratio; P = 0.028), and 25% had a positive bronchodilator response (>12% in FEV1).ConclusionEx-premature school children exhibited relatively mild but significant long-term respiratory symptoms and pulmonary peripheral impairment judged by N2MBW and DLNO measurements along with well-known airway obstruction. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the clinical use of these advanced methods of assessing ventilation inhomogeneity and DLNO.