The spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis

Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018
Source:Respiratory Medicine
Author(s): Amjad Kanj, Nadine Abdallah, Ayman O. Soubani
Notable progress has been made in the past years in the classification, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis. New criteria were proposed by the Working Group of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The latest classification of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) suggested by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) has become widely accepted among clinicians. Subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is now considered a type of CPA, yet it is still diagnosed and treated similarly to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Isavuconazole, an extended-spectrum triazole, has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of IPA. The most recent Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines strongly recommend reducing mold exposure to patients at high risk for pulmonary aspergillosis. The excessive relapse rate following discontinuation of therapy remains a common reality to all forms of this semi-continuous spectrum of diseases. This highlights the need to continuously reassess patients and individualize therapy accordingly. Thus far, the duration of therapy and the frequency of follow-up have to be well characterized.