Macrolide therapy is associated with lower mortality in community-acquired bacteraemic pneumonia

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Respiratory Medicine, Volume 140
Author(s): Forest W. Arnold, Gustavo Lopardo, Timothy L. Wiemken, Robert Kelley, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Charles Feldman, Martin Gnoni, Rosemeri Maurici, Julio A. Ramirez
BackgroundCommunity-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has a potential complication of bacteremia. The objective of this study was to define the clinical outcomes of patients with CAP and bacteremia treated with and without a macrolide.Materials and methodsSecondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database of hospitalized patients with CAP. Patients with a positive blood culture were categorized based on the presence or absence of a macrolide in their initial antimicrobial regimen, and severity of their CAP. Outcomes included in-hospital all-cause mortality, 30-day mortality, length of stay, and time to clinical stability.ResultsAmong 549 patients with CAP and bacteremia, 247 (45%) were treated with a macrolide and 302 (55%) were not. The primary pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae (74%). Poisson regression with robust error variance models were used to compare the adjusted effects of each study group on the outcomes. The unadjusted 30-day mortality was 18.4% in the macrolide group, and 29.6% in the non-macrolide group (adjusted relative risk (aRR)0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI)0.50–1.33; P = 0.41). Unadjusted in-hospital all-cause mortality was 7.3% in the macrolide group, and 18.9% in the non-macrolide group (aRR 0.54, 95% CI 0.30–0.98; P = 0.043). Length of stay and time to clinical stability were not significantly different.ConclusionsIn-hospital mortality, but not 30-day mortality, was significantly better in the macrolide group. Our data support the use of a macrolide in hospitalized patients with CAP and bacteraemia.

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