Airway Interleukin-33 and type 2 cytokines in adult patients with acute asthma

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Respiratory Medicine, Volume 140
Author(s): Nadia Nicholine Poulsen, Asger Bjerregaard, Siew-Kim Khoo, Ingrid A. Laing, Peter Le Souëf, Vibeke Backer, Laura Rapley, Suzanne E. Cohen, Lucy Barrett, Philip Thompson, Svetlana Baltic, Celeste Porsbjerg
BackgroundSeveral animal studies, and one inoculation study in adult asthmatics have shown that interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a major contributor to type-2 inflammation in acute asthma. However, the link between IL-33 and type-2 inflammation has not been shown in naturally occurring asthma exacerbations.ObjectivesTo determine if airway IL-33 is associated with type-2 inflammation measured by type-2 cytokines, FeNO and sputum eosinophils in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with an asthma exacerbations.MethodsAdult patients hospitalized due to acute asthma were enrolled. Upper airways were sampled with nasal swabs and lower airways with induced sputum. Cytokines were measured at protein level using a Luminex® assay and mRNA expression level using droplet-digital-PCR. Airway sampling was repeated four weeks after exacerbation.ResultsAt the time of exacerbation, upper airway IL-33 correlated with upper airway IL-5 and IL-13 (R = 0.84, p < 0.01 and R = 0.76, p < 0.01, respectively) and with lower airway IL-13 (R = 0.49, p = 0.03). Similar associations were observed for mRNA expression. Lower airway IL-33 positively correlated with lower airway IL-13 (R = 0.84, p < 0.01). IL-13 and IL-33 were positively correlated with FeNO, and IL-5 with eosinophils. The association between IL-33 and type-2 cytokines were still present four weeks after exacerbation.ConclusionThis is the first study to demonstrate that airway IL-33 is associated with type-2 cytokines in naturally occurring asthma exacerbations in adults, providing in vivo evidence supporting that IL-33 may be driving type-2 inflammation in acute asthma. Thus supporting IL-33 as a potential future drug target due to its role, upstream in the immunological cascade.